SIXTH SCHEDULE, TRIBAL AREAS, AUTONOMOUS COUNCIL / DISTRICT COUNCIL

 

SPECIAL PROVISION FOR ADMINISTRATION OF  TRIBAL DOMINATED AREAS,

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN 5TH SCHEDULE AND 6TH SCHEDULE:

5th Schedule for Schedule areas and 6th schedule for Tribal areas. In 6th schedule the governing authority is given to union centre and in 5th schedule the authority is given to state.

No of states under 6th Schedule – 4 namely- Assam,Mizoram, Meghalaya and Tripura.

While the 5th schedule envisage the creation of Tribal Areas and the 6th Schedule provides district and regional council with certain executive and judicial powers.

The governor power in 6th Schedule :

  1. The Governor has the power to declare any region or district as autonomous area or autonomous district 
  2. He has also power to exclude,include any regions, unite any  regions or alter the names and boundaries of the regions.

Article related : 275 => Regional council and 244 => District Council

These council is administered to empower their respective regions.

Members:

Max members=40 ( Exceptional BTAD where 46 members)

BTAD 46 members structure

Government has to select 6 members (unrepresented community from Bodoland) for the council and at least two members will be woman.

30 members are elected from adult suffrage(tribal people)

5 will be from reserved category.

5 will be from unreserved category. 

Legislature powers of AUTONOMOUS Council:

  1. trade and finance
  2. Animal Husbandry and other lively stocks
  3. Primary and Secondary Education
  4. Health Sector(Public Health, Sanitation and Hospitals)
  5. Transport sector
  6. Social Security and Social Insurance
  7.  Flood Control
  8. Entertainment including Theaters and Cinemas
  9. Minor Irrigation
  10. Libraries,Monuments and Museum
  11. Alienation of food

Council in Different States

  1. Assam-  Bodoland Territorial Autonomous Council , Karbi Anglong Autonomous Council, Dima Hasao Autonomous District Council
  2. Meghalaya- Garo Autonomous district Council, Khasi Autonomous district Council, Jayantia Autonomous District Council.
  3. Mizoram – Chakma Autonomous District Council, Lai autonomous district Council and Mara autonomous district Council
  4. Tripura- Tripura Tribal Areas Autonomous District Council

Judicial Power of 6th Schedule 

The laws made by state legislature on any subjects that comes within jurisdiction of council,would not extended within autonomous council unless it directs, so by public notification. The president in regard to the central act and Governor in regard to state act direct that central act and state act shall not apply to autonomous council or may be addressed to some modification if specified. The council is also endowed with wide civil and judicial powers, for example establishing village courts, jurisdiction of these council is subject to jurisdiction of the concerned High Court.

In Short-

Judicial powers- The law made by state council can’t be applied directly to autonomous council unless it is notified by public.

The Governor and President direct that the state act and Central act shall not apply directly to autonomous council. However the council may be addressed to some modification if specified.

The council will get some wide civil and judicial powers e.g, Village Courts but the jurisdiction of these council is subject to jurisdiction of concerned high court.

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IN SHORT WOOD’S DESPATCH ( EDUCATION FOR APSC)

IN SHORT WOOD’S DESPATCH 1854 (THE MAGNA-CARTA OF THE INDIAN EDUCATION)

  • The main objective of the Wood’s Despatch was to educate Indian people in order to create a class of civil servants.

 

  • It also wanted to impart Western knowledge and information about Western Culture to the Indian people.

 

  • The Wood’s Despatch recommended for the first time, the creation of Department of Education in Bengal, Madras, Bombay, Punjab and the North Western Provinces.

 

  • The Despatch recommended the promotion of mass education by establishing schools, both public of and private.

 

  • The Wood’s Despatch recommended the establishment of three universities in the Presidency towns of Calcutta, Bombay and Madras on the model of the London University.

 

  • The grant-in-aid system was recommended by the Wood’s Despatch

 

  • The Despatch wanted to promote the study of English as well as Indian regional languages and classical languages like Arabic, Persian and Sanskrit.

 

  • The Wood’s Despatch supported women education.

 

  • Importance of training of teachers was realized by the Despatch and so it recommended the establishment of teacher training institutes. It also suggested the improvement of working condition and salaries of teachers.

 

  • The Wood’s Despatch also encouraged professional education.

 

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/dc/Charles_Wood%2C_1st_Viscount_Halifax_by_Anthony_de_Brie_%28Bree%29.jpg
CHARLES WOOD

Macaulay’s Minute (education)

As a president of General Committee of Public Instruction, Lord Macaulay wrote a minute on 2nd February 1835, where he made the conclusion regarding the controversy. Lord Macaulay stressed the implementation of the English language as a medium of instruction through his minute. According to him, English was the best medium of instruction. He held that this would enable the emergence of a class of people in the Indian society, who would be well versed in English language, western ideology, taste and opinion. This class would serve as a medium of contact with the great mass of Indian people who were culturally different from the English. This class would also be the agents of change of the great Indian society.

By introducing the English language for the education of the Indian masses, Macaulay’s opinion was that the public mind of India may expand under the English system and through the English language, it may educate the people into a capacity for better government. In the minute, Macaulay wrote, ”We must at present do our best to form a class who may be interpreters between us and the millions whom we govern-a class of persons, Indian in blood and colour, but English in tastes, in opinions, in morals and in intellects.” Thus, from this minute, Macaulay anglicized the education in India as a whole so as to get benefits in their business policy. Actually, the Government of the East India Company wanted to educate some great Indians for profits in their business through the Downward Filtration Theory. The downward filtration theory means that the education was provided to a small portion of the people, and through them, education was conveyed to the masses.

Hence, through this theory, the minute did partiality by giving education to some favourable persons as they liked to engage them in their business policy.

In his minute, Macaulay criticized the oriental learning as “a single shelf of good European library was worth the whole native literature of India and Arabic”. Macaulay believed that English should be introduced because it is a language of the ruling class and also the familiarity has been gained by higher classes of Indians.

In fact, the contribution from Macaulay through his minute was appreciated as the torch bearer in the path of progress by some people of the higher classes in India and the Company. But Lord Macaulay was not free from some of the criticisms. Some people in India had blamed Lord Macaulay as Macaulay, took only the quick decision to promote the English language, not to be the torch bearer to create the desire for English education. Macaulay was also blamed by some Indians for his severe condemnation of oriental literature and religion.

Thus, in lieu of the British rule over India, Lord Macaulay’s Minute was accepted by Lord Bentinck, the Governor –General of India and passed the resolution to accept the English language as a medium of instruction for the Indian education system..

CHARTER ACT , CLASICIST AND ENGLISICST (source kkshou) for apsc education

Although, before 1813, Missionaries and various religious groups had brought some basic education non-officially to the Indian masses but it was through the Charter Act that a state system of education was officially introduced in Indian history. In this unit, we are going to discuss and identify the significance of the Charter Act and Macaulay’s Minute during the British period in India.

CHARTER ACT OF 1813

In the 18th century, it was the Christian missionaries from whom the Indian masses basically received religious education pertaining to Christianity. But when the East India Company came to India they did not allow the missionaries for the propagation of the religious education to the common people in India. Because they felt that the education from the missionaries would encourage the religious sentiments among the people
in India that could affect the business policy and the diplomatic role of the East India Company. Therefore, from 1793 to 1813 the company did not permit the missionaries to work for the Indian people. Thus, it created an agitation against the East India Company that the Company was opposed to the teachings of Christ and neglected to provide education for the Indians. Interestingly, the agitation was supported by many in England
and ultimately made a conclusion by introducing an education clause which is known as Charter Act of 1813. Hence, this Act ultimately made a State system of Education in India. In this clause, the basic statement or condition of the British Government was : “It shall be lawful for the Governor-General-in-Council to direct that out of any surplus which may remain of the rents, revenues, and profits arising from the said territorial acquisition, after defraying the expenses of the military, civil and commercial establishments and paying the interest of the debt in manner hereinafter provided, a sum of not less than one lac of rupees each year shall be set apart for the revival and
improvement of literature and encouragement of the learned natives of India, and for the introduction and promotion of a knowledge of the science among the inhabitants of the British territories in India.” Thus, it was the clause in which the first time in the Indian soil; official money of rupees one lac was allotted to expand the education of the Indians. This clause of the Charter Act of 1813 compelled the East India Company to
accept responsibility for the education of the Indian people. As a result, from 1813 to 1857, the company opened many schools and colleges under their control which laid the foundation of the English system of education in India.

Controversies between Anglicist and Classicists

Although it was the first act through which the education system was formally laid down in India, yet it had created a controversy between the anglicist and classicist on the medium of instruction. Also the Charter Act of 1813 did not clarify the objectives of education and the methods for improvement of literature of the learned natives in India. The Charter Act had given stress on allotting the one lakhs rupees only; no specific regulations were granted for establishing the schools and colleges in India. The controversy arose mainly for the following reasons:

  1. Aims: Regarding the aims of education during that time, groups of people had different opinions. One group preferred the propagation of oriental literature, whereas the other group stressed the need to introduce western literature among the Indian people.
  2. Agency: In terms of agencies to be employed for organizing the schools and colleges, there were also some forms of conflicts and controversies. One school of thought opined that missionaries should be an agency for educational management while another group believed that it will be better if Indians themselves played the role for conducting the educational institutions. The third school of thought recommended the establishment of the schools by the company itself.
  3. Medium: Regarding the medium of instruction there were also three opinions. The first opinion was that the western sciences and knowledge should be promoted through the classical lanquage as a medium of instruction, namely Sanskrit and
    Arabic. The second school of thought was favored to the modern Indian language and lastly the third school of thought held that education should be given through the medium of English.
  4. Methods: Methods of education also created the controversy among the people of India. It was of two opinions regarding the methods. The first opinion was that education always filters down from the upper classes of the society to the common
    masses. It was known as ‘Downwards Filtration Theory’. The other opinion preferred that the company should themselves take the responsibility for educating the masses.

In 1823, the Governor-General-in Council appointed a “General Committee of Public Instruction”, which had the responsibility to grant the one lakh of rupees for education. That committee consisted of 10(ten) European members of which Lord Macaulay was the president. The committee decided to spend major portions from the grant for the improvement of oriental literature. Interestingly, during that time, there was a rapid change in attitude towards the importance of English education, mainly due to the
missionaries and the political influence of the English language. Therefore, for the Council of East India Company, the decision for granting the money faced a greater problem. The Court of Directors of the East India Company asked the Government of India to take the decision for spreading the education; however the Court of Director of the East India Company was in favour of English education. In this way, the controversy was going on for twelve years. Even, the General Committee of Public Instruction also was not able to decide the medium of instruction by vote; because out of ten members, five were supporters of English lanquage or Anglicist as the medium of instruction and the rest were supporters of oriental or classic lanquage or Classicists as a medium of
instruction. This is the famous Anglicist and Classicists controversy. The Indian of the orientalists’ literature was not willing to accept European knowledge and science unless it was presented to them through the classical languages. Actually, the oriental party wanted to preserve the oriental learning from existing educational institutions while the other group of anglicist party wanted to abolish the preservation of the oriental
education.

Education for APSC (Source KKHSOU)

  • AN EVALUATION OF THE RECOMMENDATIONS of HARTLOG COMMITTEE
  1. The report of the Hartog Committee holds a unique position in the history of Indian education. It greatly influenced the educational policy of the Government which was consolidation rather than expansion prior to independence. The recommendations of the committee regarding primary education were important and well thought out. The report was the first official recognition of the neglect of primary education. It blamed the provincial Governments for poor progress of primary education. The committee observed that primary education had become meaningless and ineffective. Therefore it argued for qualitative improvement. It pointed out that the problems of primary education were basically rural and it had also drawn attention to the problem of wastage and stagnation. The recommendations were welcomed by the officials but the Indian people, however, did not appreciate them. Indian nationalist opinion was in favor of quantitative expansion. The Government continued the policy of consolidation and it had an adverse effect on the primary education. The idea of compulsory primary education was sidetracked.
  2. Regarding secondary education, the Hartog committee laid emphasis on industrial and commercial subjects, thereby making provisions for the students to take up practical occupations in life. The committee also recommended for improving the pay scale and service conditions of the teachers and rightly expressed that no education can be successful unless the teachers were well paid and enjoyed the security of service. But the Government did not choose to implement the recommendations on the teachers and no attempt was made to raise their salaries. The committee very distinctly remarked that qualitative improvement of education was not possible unless the conditions of the teachers were improved.
  3. The Hartog committee had concentrated its attention more on primary and secondary education and less on university education. The committee praised the growth of affiliated colleges but criticized the falling standards of the university education. It expressed the opinion that the universities had failed to meet the needs of the people. It was the duty of the universities to produce such individuals who were tolerant, liberal and suitable to undertake great responsibilities. Giving importance on developing the libraries of the universities was one of the important recommendations of the commission.
  • RESULT OF THE RECOMMENDATIONS

We know that the essence of Hartog committee was the importance of qualitative improvement of primary education and not on the quantitative expansion. Accordingly some steps taken by the Government led to the qualitative improvement of this stage. But the general people of the country were asking for quantitative expansion. So the recommendations of the committee aroused a sharp reaction. People wanted an education policy which could lead to an increase in the rate of literacy. In fact, an increase in literacy was the need of the country. However, little was done up to 1937 to develop primary education. The total number of primary schools were 1,96,708 in 1931-32. During 1936-37 the number came down to 1, 92,244. Such was the sorry plight of primary education in the country.

The condition of secondary education however, was better than that of primary education. From 7.530 schools in 1921-22 increased to 13,056 in 1936-37. The number of students were also doubled. But the real cause of improvement was not the committee’s recommendations because nothing had been done by the Government to implement the suggestions. The cause of the improvement had been the efforts of private enterprises and awakening of national spirit. A spirit of love for education was developed in all sections of the people. There was a healthy competition among the people for opening new schools and many teachers opened their own schools by being dissatisfied with the existing state of educational affairs.

Due to the growth of secondary education higher education also developed. A number of new universities and colleges were opened during this period. The number of teaching departments in universities and colleges had gone up to 446 in 1936-37 from 207 in 1921-22. Besides new degree colleges and universities were opened during the period. Some special institutions like Shantiniketan founded by Rabindra Nath Tagore were also established. Delhi University was established in 1922, Nagpur 1923, Agra 1927, Andhra University in 1926 and Annamalai in 1929. Most of the students were attracted to higher education because they realized that secondary education could not fulfill their aspirations. Moreover university educated persons were getting preference over matriculation passed individuals. Therefore there was a rush towards higher education.

But the report of the Hartog committee received cold and hostile reception in the nationalist circles because they felt that a definite program of expansion was urgently needed for the liquidation of illiteracy and mass education in the country. It was criticized as political device to check the expansion of mass education.

 

( This is not the answer formate but only an elaborate information on this topic so that the reader can comprehend it better and make their own notes.)

Assamese

ইয়াত নদী আছিল – নৱকান্ত বৰুৱা

নৱকান্ত বৰুৱা৷৷ ১৯২৬-?
ইয়াত নদী আছিল
দেখিছো নদীৰ ঢলে বলাত্কাৰ কৰা পথাৰক,
পলসে কবৰ দিয়া গৰ্ভৱতী শস্যৰ সন্তান,
শুনিছো সিন্ধুৰ বানে নিমিষতে নগৰক
আত্মসাত কৰি
এৰি থৈ গুচি যোৱা শ্মশানৰ প্ৰশান্তিৰ গান৷

উদগ্ৰ ধ্বংস নিছা, লোভব কুটিল দুঃসাহস
ছলনাৰ জীৱন্ত ধেমালি আৰু পাপৰ কুতসিত অভিসাৰ-
তাৰো সৌন্দৰ্য্যই মোক দিছিল স্বপ্নৰ জাল ৰচি,
কাৰণ, মইযে দিওঁ দুঃস্বপ্নকো স্বপ্নৰ মৰ্য্যাদা,
সিও বন্দী সূৰ্য্যকণা,
আহিছিল ভাঙি-ছিঙি পৃথিৱীৰ কঠিন জৰায়ু৷

কিন্তু মৰুভূমি আহে,
লাহে লাহে মাহে মাহে বছৰে বছৰে
আঁহতৰ খোৰোঙাত এপাহি কপৌ-ফুল সোনকালে সৰে
গোপন ব্যাধিৰ দৰে লাহে লাহে মচি নিয়ে
প্ৰাণৰ যিমান ৰং সেউজী সোণালী,
আঁকি দিয়ে তামৰঙী এখন আকাশ আৰু
ফুটছাঁই বৰণৰ এখন পৃথিৱী

নদীক নিজৰা কৰি জুৰিক শিলনি কৰি
বালিৰ দ’লেৰে গঢ়ে গছ-লতা ফুলৰ সমাধি,
ছয়া-ময়া জিঁয়া এটি বালিয়ে বালিয়ে উৰি,
পানীৰ কাৰণে ঘুৰি

ক’ৰবাত বাট হেৰুৱায়৷
মৰুভূমি এইদৰে আহে,
লাহে লাহে মাহে মাহে বছৰে বছৰে….

দূৰণিৰ নীল সেই গাঁওখনলৈ
এইবেলি সোনকালে আঘোণ আহিল-আহিনতে?
এইবাৰ ব’হাগৰ ঢল নাহেনেকি?
উজানৰ বগা মাছে ৰূপোৱালী নকৰে নিজৰা?
আষাঢ়ৰ ক’লা মেঘ পাহাৰৰ সিপাৰে থাকিল৷
পাহাৰ ইমান ওখ! ওখনে মেঘতকৈও?
ওখনে প্ৰেমতকৈও?

বৰষুণ?
ধাননিত নগজিল জোৱাৰ বজাৰ, আমাৰ বনত
দোঁ নেখালে খেজুৰি৷
কেৱল ফুলিব সিজু, মাজনিশা তৰাৰ পোহৰে
ৰেণু তাৰ বালিদাঁহী সাপক বিলাব৷ দুবৰি ধৰিব ছাটি
কাঁইটীয়া বনে৷
ৰাতিৰ বতাহে আহি ছটিয়াব শুকান বৰফ
দিনৰ পোহৰে তাতে ঢালি দিব কমলা ৰঙৰ গলা লোহা৷
তাৰ পিছে
উটৰ ডিঙিৰ ছাঁ, দীঘল ডিঙিৰ ছাঁ, শুই ৰ’ব
হাড় হৈ সাগৰৰ বাবে৷

এইদৰে শেষ হোৱা…এই যে ৰোমাঞ্চ মৰণৰ
ইযে প্ৰৌঢ়া ৰমণীৰ ৰমণ-বিলাস, অনভিজ্ঞ
কিশোৰৰ স’তে৷ য’ত
গ্লানিৰ অতৃপ্তি নাই, তৃপ্তিৰ অশান্তি নাই,
ধ্বংসৰ সৌন্দৰ্য্য নাই,কেৱল ক্ষয়ৰ আৱিলতা,
অনায়াস গ্ৰহণ কেৱল ক্লীৱতা
বালিৰ বতাহে জানো পাহাৰত ভাস্কৰ্য্য গঢ়েহি?
গঢ়ে বিভীষিকা৷
তাতো যি ৰোমাঞ্চ্ আছে, যদি আছে,
হে জীৱন,
নালাগে আশ্ৰয় তাত,
ভাগৰ লাগিছে মোৰ গঢ়ি গঢ়ি নতুন বিগ্ৰহ৷